Oensingen (SO)

Site description

This site was part of the CarboEuropeIP project (EU FP6) and the GHG-Europe project (EU FP7). Eddy covariance flux measurements started in December 2003. The soil type is an eutri-stagnic cambisol. The site is located at 452 m als and is managed as a typical intensive crop rotation under the Swiss Integrated Pest Management regime (IP Suisse). The tower coordinates are: 47°17'11.1" N and 7°44'01.5" E; WGS84 47.286417, 7.73375. During the CarboEuropeIP project, colleagues from Agroscope operated the Oensingen Grassland site nearby.

Crop rotation

Find the sequence of crops here.

Research and infrastructure


Half-hourly: temperature, moisture, heat flux


Half-hourly: eddy flux (CO2, H2O), wind vectors, radiation components, PAR (diffuse and total), temperature, humidity, precipitation


Half-hourly: Vegetation reflectance. Linked to harvests: above-ground biomass production, crop residues

Enlarged view: Oensingen – Eddy station
Eddy station
Enlarged view: Oensingen – Eddy station
Eddy station



Emmel C, D’Odorico P, Revill A, Hörtnagl L, Ammann C, Buchmann N, Eugster W (2020) Canopy photosynthesis of six major arable crops is enhanced under diffuse light due to canopy structure. Global Change Biology 26: 5164-​5177, doi: external page10.1111/gcb.15226


D’Odorico P, Emmel C, Revill A, Liebisch F, Eugster W, Buchmann N (2019) Vertical patterns of photosynthesis and related leaf traits in two contrasting agricultural crops. Functional Plant Biology 46: 213-227, doi: external page10.1071/FP18061

Revill A, Emmel C, D’Odorico P, Buchmann N, Hörtnagl L, Eugster W (2019) Estimating cropland carbon fluxes: a process-based model evaluation at a Swiss crop-rotation site. Field Crops Research 234: 95-106, doi: external page10.1016/j.fcr.2019.02.006


Emmel C, Winkler A, Hörtnagl L, Revill A, Ammann C, D’Odorico P, Buchmann N, Eugster W (2018) Integrated management of a Swiss cropland is not sufficient to preserve its soil carbon pool in the long-term. Biogeosciences 15: 5377-5393, doi: external page10.5194/bg-15-5377-2018

Li X, Xiao J, He B, Altaf Arain M. Beringer J, Desai A R, Emmel C, Hollinger D Y, Krasnova A, Mammarella I, Noe S M, Serrano Ortiz P, Rey-Sanchez A C, Rocha A V, Varlagin A (2018). Solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence is strongly correlated with terrestrial photosynthesis for a wide variety of biomes: First global analysis based on OCO-2 and flux tower observations. Global Change Biology 24: 3990-4008, doi: external page10.1111/gcb.14297

Paul-Limoges E, Damm A, Hueni A, Liebisch F, Eugster W, Schaepmann M E, Buchmann N (2018) Effect of environmental conditions on sun-induced fluorescence in a mixed forest and a cropland. Remote Sensing of Environment 219: 310-323, doi: external page10.1016/j.rse.2018.10.018


Braun D, Damm A, Paul-Limoges E, Revill A, Buchmann N, Petchey OL, Hein L, Schaepman ME (2017) From instantaneous to continuous: Using imaging spectroscopy and in situ data to map two productivity-related ecosystem services. Ecological Indicators 82: 409-419, doi: external page10.1016/j.ecolind.2017.06.045

Lin H, Chen Y, Song  Q, Fua P, Cleverly  J, Magliulo V, Law B E, Gough C M, Hörtnagl L, Di Gennaro F, Matteucci G, Montagnani L, Duce P, Shao C, Kato T, Bonal D, Paul-Limoges E, Beringer J, Grace J, Fana Z (2017) Quantifying deforestation and forest degradation with thermal response. Science of the Total Environment 607-608: 1286-1292, doi:  external page10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.07.062

Yao Y, Liang S, Li X, Zhang Y, Chen J, Jia K, Zhang X, Fisher JB, Wang X, Zhang L, Xu J, Shao C, Posse G, Li Y, Magliulo V, Varlagin A, Moors EJ, Boike J, Macfarlane C, Kato T, Buchmann N, Billesbach DP, Beringer J, Wolf S, Papuga SA, Wohlfahrt G, Montagnani L, Ardö J, Paul-Limoges E, Emmel C, Hörtnagl L, Sachs T, Gruening C, Gioli B, López-Ballesteros A, Steinbrecher R, Gielen B (2017) Estimation of high-resolution terrestrial evapotranspiration from Landsat data using a simple Taylor skill fusion method. Journal of Hydrology 553: 508-526, external pagehttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2017.08.013

Zhang Z, Zhang R, Cescatti A, Wohlfahrt G, Buchmann N, Zhu J, Chen G, Moyano F, Pumpanen J, Hirano T, Takagi K, Merbold L (2017) Effect of climate warming on the annual terrestrial net ecosystem CO2 exchange globally in the boreal and temperate regions. Scientific Reports 7: 3108, doi: external page10.1038/s41598-017-03386-5


Tramontana G, Jung M, Camps-Valls G, Ichii K, Raduly B, Reichstein M, Schwalm CR. Arain A, Cescatti A, Kiely G, Merbold L, Serrano-Ortiz P, Sickert S, Wolf S and Papale D (2016) Predicting carbon dioxide and energy fluxes across global FLUXNET sites with regression algorithms. Biogeosciences Discussions 13: 4291-4313, doi: external page10.5194/bg-2015-661


Damm A, Guanter L, Paul-Limoges E, van der Tol C, Hueni A, Buchmann N, Eugster W, Ammann C, Schaepman ME (2015) Far-red sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence shows ecosystem-specific relationships to gross primary production: An assessment based on observational and modeling approaches. Remote Sensing Environment 166: 91-105, doi: external page10.1016/j.rse.2015.06.004

Papale D, Black TA, Carvalhais N, Cescatti A, Chen J, Jung M, Kiely G, Lasslop G, Mahecha M, Margolis H, Merbold L, Montagnani L, Moors E, Olesen JE, Reichstein M, Tramontana G, van Gorsel E, Wohlfahrt G Raduly B (2015) Effect of spatial sampling from European flux-towers for estimating carbon and water fluxes with artificial neural networks. Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences 120: 1941-1957, external pagedoi:10.1002/2015JG002997

van Dijk AIJM, Gash JH, van Gorsel E, Blanken PD, Cescatti A, Emmel C, Gielen B, Harman I, Kiely G, Merbold L, Montagnani L, Moors E, Roland M, Sottocornola M, Varlagin A, Williams CA, Wohlfahrt G (2015) Rainfall interception and the coupled surface water and energy balance. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 214-215: 402-415, doi:external page10.1016/j.agrformet.2015.09.006


D’Odorico P, Gonsamo A, Damm A, Schaepman ME (2013) Experimental Evaluation of Sentinel-2 Spectral Response Functions for NDVI Time-Series Continuity. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 51: 1336-1348


Niu S, Luo Y, Fei S, Yuan W, Zhang Z, Schimel D, Amiro B, Ammann C, Altaf Arain M, Arneth A, Aubinet M, Barr A, Beringer J, Bernhofer C, Black AT, Buchmann N, Cescatti A, Chen J, Kenneth P, Davis J, Dellwik E, Desai AR, Dolman H, Drake BK, Francois L, Gianelle D, Goldstein A, Gu L, Helfter C, Hirano T, Hollinger DY, Janssens I, Jones M, Kiely G, Kolb TE, Kutsch WL, Lafleur P, Law BE, Litvak M, Loustau D, Marek M, Matteucci G, Martin TA, Montagnani L, Moors E, Munger JW, Noormets A, Oechel W, Olejnik J, Papale D, Paw U KT, Pilegaard K, Rambal S, Raschi A, Richardson AD, Saleska S, Scott R, Seufert G, Spano D, Stoy P, Sutton MA, Vesala T, Wofsy S, Wohlfahrt G, Yakir D, Yang B (2012) Thermal Optimality of Net Ecosystem Exchange of Carbon Dioxide. New Phytologist 194: 775-783

Wang T, Brender P, Ciais P, Piao S, Mahecha MD, Chevallier F, Reichstein M, Ottlé C, Maignan F, Arain A, Bohrer G, Cescatti A, Kiely G, Law BE, Merbold L, Montagnani L, Moors E, Osborne B, Panferov O, Papale D, Vaccari FP: State-dependent errors in a land surface model across biomes inferred from eddy covariance observations on multiple timescales (2012) Ecological Modelling 246: 11-25, doi: external page10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2012.07.017


Ceschia E, Béziat P, Dejoux JF, Aubinet M, Bernhofer C, Bodson B, Buchmann N, Carrara A, Cellier P, Di Tomasi P, Elbers JA, Eugster W, Grünwald T, Jacob CMJ, Jans WWP, Jones M, Kutsch WL, Lanigan G, Magliulo E, Marloie O, Moors EJ, Moureaux C, Olioso A, Osborne B, Sanz MJ, Saunders M, Smith P, Soegaard H, Wattenbach M (2010) Management effects on net ecosystem carbon and GHG budgets at European crop sites. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 139: 363-383

Dietiker D, Buchmann N, Eugster W (2010) Testing the ability of the DNDC model to predict CO2 and water vapour fluxes of a Swiss cropland site. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 139: 396-401

Eugster W, Moffat A, Ceschia E, Aubinet M, Ammann C, Osborne B, Davis PA, Smith P, Jacobs C, Moors E, Le Dantec V, Béziat P, Saunders M, Jans W, Grünwald T, Rebmann C, Kutsch W, Czerný R, Janouš D, Moureaux C, Dufranne D, Carrara A, Magliulo E, di Tommasi P, Olesen JE, Schelde K, Olioso A, Bernhofer C, Cellier P, Larmanou E, Loubet B, Wattenbach M, Marloie O, Sanz MJ, Soegaard H, Buchmann N (2010) Management effects on European cropland respiration. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 139: 346-362

Hastings AF, Wattenbach M, Eugster W, Li C, Buchmann N, Smith P (2010) Uncertainty propagation in soil greenhouse gas emission models: An experiment using the DNDC model and at the Oensingen cropland site. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 136: 97-110

Kutsch WL, Aubinet M, Buchmann N, Smith P, Osborne B, Eugster W, Wattenbach M, Schulze ED, Tormellieri E, Ceschia E, Bernhofer C, Beziat P, Carrara A., Di Tommasi P, Grünwald T, Jones M, Magiulo V, Marloie O, Olioso A, Sanz MJ, Saunders M, Søgaard H, Ziegler W (2010) The net biome production of full crop rotations in Europe. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 139: 336-345

Moors EJ, Jacobs C, Jans W, Supit I, Kutsch WL, Bernhofer C, Béziat P, Buchmann N, Carrara A, Ceschia E, Elbers J, Eugster W, Kruijt B, Loubet B, Magliulo E, Moureaux C, Olioso A, Saunders M, Soegaard H (2010) Variability in carbon exchange of European croplands. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 139: 325-335

Smith P, Lanigan G, Kutsch WL, Buchmann N, Eugster W, Aubinet M, Ceschia E, Béziat P, Yeluripati JB, Osborne B, Moors EJ, Brut A, Wattenbach M, Saunders M, Jones M (2010) Measurements necessary for assessing the net ecosystem carbon budget of croplands. Agriculture, Ecosystems and the Environment 139: 302-315

Sus O, Williams M, Doherty R, Bernhofer C, Beziat P, Buchmann N, Ceschia E, Eugster W, Grünwald T, Kutsch WL, Smith P, Wattenbach M (2010) A linked carbon cycle and crop developmental model: description and evaluation against measurements of carbon fluxes and carbon stocks at several European agricultural sites. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 139: 402-418

Tuzson B, Hiller R, Zever K, Eugster W, Neftel A, Ammann C, Emmenegger L (2010) Field Intercomparison of two optical analyzers for CH4 eddy covariance flux measurements. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 3: 1519-1531

Wattenbach M, Sus O, Vuichard N, Lehuger S, Gottschalk P, Li L, Leip A, Williams M, Tomerelli E, Kutsch WL, Buchman N, Eugster W, Dietiker D, Aubinet M, Ceschia E, Beziat P, Gruenwald T, Hastings A, Osborne B, Ciais P, Cellier P, Smith P (2010) The carbon balance of European croplands: A cross-site comparison of simulation models. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 139: 419-453

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