Lägeren (AG)

Site description

Managed mixed deciduous mountain forest located on the steep Lägeren mountain (NW of Zurich, Swiss Plateau). The forest is highly diverse, dominated by beech, but also including ash, maple, spruce and fir trees. The site was been part of the international CarboEurope IP network and the Swiss air quality network NABEL, and is one of the long-term forest ecosystem research sites external page(LWF) of the WSL (Institut f. Wald Schnee & Landschaft). Eddy covariance flux measurements were started in April 2004 (tower coordinates: 47°28'42.0" N and 8°21'51.8" E; WGS84 47.478333, 8.364389; at 682 m asl).

Research and infrastructure

Enlarged view: Lägeren – Eddy covariance measurements
Covariance measurements
Enlarged view: Lägeren – Forest floor
Forest floor
Enlarged view: Lägeren – Forest
Lägeren forest
Enlarged view: Lägeren – Soil respiration measurements
Soil respiration measurements



Bachofen C, D'Odorico P, Buchmann N (2020) Light and VPD gradients drive foliar nitrogen partitioning and photosynthesis in the canopy of European beech and silver fir. Oecologia 192: 323-​339, doi: external page10.1007/s00442-​019-04583-xexternal page

Damm A, Paul‐Limoges E, Kükenbrink D, Bachofen C, Morsdorf F (2020) Remote sensing of forest gas exchange: Considerations derived from a tomographic perspective. Global Change Biology 26: 2717-2727, doi: external page10.1111/gcb.15007

Gharun M, Hörtnagl L, Paul-​Limoges E, Ghiasi S, Feigenwinter I, Burri S, Marquardt K, Etzold S, Zweifel R, Eugster W, Buchmann N (2020) Summer 2018 drought reduced forest and grassland productivity, but not at higher elevations in Switzerland. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 375: 20190521, doi: external page10.1098/rstb.2019.0521


Besnard S, Carvalhais N, Brede B, Clevers JGPW, Dutrieux LP, Gans F, Jung M, Reichstein M, Arain A, Black A, Buchmann N, Chen J, Kosugi Y, Knohl A, Law BE, Paul-Limoges E, Lohila A, Merbold L, Roupsard O, Valentini R, Wolf S, Zhang X (2019) Memory effects of climate and vegetation affecting net ecosystem CO2 fluxes in global forests. PLoS One 14: external pagee0211510

Burri S, Haeler E, Eugster W, Haeni M, Etzold S, Walthert L, Braun S, Zweifel R (2019) How did Swiss forest trees respond to the hot summer 2015? – DIE ERDE 150: 214-229, doi: external page10.12854/erde-2019-420


Besnard S, Carvalhais N, Arain A, Black A, de Bruin S, Buchmann N, Cescatti A, Chen J, Clevers JGPW, Desai AR, Gough C, Havrankova K, Herold M, Hörtnagl L, Jung M, Knohl A, Kruijt B, Krupkova L, Law B E, Lindroth AM, Noormets A, Rouspard O, Steinbrecher R, Varlagin A, Vincke C and Reichstein M (2018) Quantifying the effect of forest age in annual net forest carbon balance. Environmental Research Letters 13: 124018, doi: external page10.1088/1748-9326/aaeaeb

Brinkmann N, Eugster W, Buchmann N, Kahmen A (2018) Species-specific differences in water uptake depth of mature temperate trees vary with water availability in the soil. Plant Biology 21: 71-81, doi: external page10.1111/plb.1290

Brinkmann N, Seeger S, Weiler M, Buchmann N, Eugster W, Kahmen A (2018) Employing stable water isotopes to estimate residence times of soil water and temporal origin of xylem water in a temperate forest. New Phytologist 219: 1300-1313, doi: external page10.1111/nph.15255

Paul-Limoges E, Damm A, Hueni A, Liebisch F, Eugster W, Schaepmann M E, Buchmann N (2018) Effect of environmental conditions on sun-induced fluorescence in a mixed forest and a cropland. Remote Sensing of Environment 219: 310-323, doi: external page10.1016/j.rse.2018.10.018


Braun D, Damm A, Paul-Limoges E, Revill A, Buchmann N, Petchey OL, Hein L, Schaepman ME (2017) From instantaneous to continuous: Using imaging spectroscopy and in situ data to map two productivity-related ecosystem services. Ecological Indicators 82: 409-419, doi: external page10.1016/j.ecolind.2017.06.045

Gottselig N, Amelung W, Kirchner J, Bol R, Eugster W, Granger S.J, Hernández-Crespo C, Herrmann F, Keizer J J, Korkiakoski M, Laudon H, Lehner I, Löfgren S, Lohila A, Macleod C J A, Mölder M, Müller C, Nasta P, Nischwitz V, Paul-Limoges E, Pierret M C, Pilegaard K, Romano N, Sebastia M T, Siemens J, Stähli M, Voltz M, Vereecken H, Klumpp E (2017) Natural nanoparticles and colloids in European forest stream waters and their role as phosphorus carriers. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 31: 1592–1607, doi: external page10.1002/2017GB005657/full

Haeni M, Zweifel R, Eugster W, Gessler A, Zielis S, Carrara A, Knohl A, Havránková K, Herbst M, Ibrom A, Lagergren F, Marek M, Matteucci G, Moors E, Olejnik J, Pavelka M, Pilegaard K, Pita G, Rodrigues A, Sanz MJ, Schelhaas MJ, Urbaniak M, Valentini R, Vesala T, Wu J, Buchmann N (2017) Winter respiratory C losses provide explanatory power for net ecosystem productivity. Journal of Geophysical ResearchBiogeosciences 122: 243-260, doi: external page10.1002/2016JG003455

Paul-Limoges E, Wolf S, Eugster W, Hörtnagl L, Buchmann N (2017) Below canopy contributions to ecosystem CO2 fluxes in a temperate mixed forest in Switzerland. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 247: 582-596, doi: external page10.1016/j.agrformet.2017.08.011

Yao Y, Liang S, Li X, Zhang Y, Chen J, Jia K, Zhang X, Fisher JB, Wang X, Zhang L, Xu J, Shao C, Posse G, Li Y, Magliulo V, Varlagin A, Moors EJ, Boike J, Macfarlane C, Kato T, Buchmann N, Billesbach DP, Beringer J, Wolf S, Papuga SA, Wohlfahrt G, Montagnani L, Ardö J, Paul-Limoges E, Emmel C, Hörtnagl L, Sachs T, Gruening C, Gioli B, López-Ballesteros A, Steinbrecher R, Gielen B (2017) Estimation of high-resolution terrestrial evapotranspiration from Landsat data using a simple Taylor skill fusion method. Journal of Hydrology 553: 508-526. external pagehttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2017.08.013


Damm A, Guanter L, Paul-Limoges E, van der Tol C, Hueni A, Buchmann N, Eugster W, Ammann C, Schaepman ME (2015) Far-red sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence shows ecosystem-specific relationships to gross primary production: An assessment based on observational and modeling approaches. Remote Sensing Environment 166: 91-105 doi: external page10.1016/j.rse.2015.06.004

D’Odorico P, Gonsamo A, Gough CM, Bohrer G, Morison J, Wilkinson M, Hanson PJ, Gianelle D, Fuentes JD, Buchmann N (2015) The match and mismatch between photosynthesis and land surface phenology of deciduous forests. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 214-15: 25-38

Michna P, Werner RA, Eugster W (2015) Does fog chemistry in Switzerland change with altitude? Atmospheric Research 151: 31-44, doi: external page10.1016/j.atmosres.2014.02.008

Oney B, Henne S, Gruber N, Leuenberger M, Bamberger I, Eugster W, Brunner D, (2015) The CarboCount CH sites: characterization of a dense greenhouse gas observation network. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 15: 11147-11164, external pagedoi: 10.5194/acp-15-11147-2015

Papale D, Black TA, Carvalhais N, Cescatti A, Chen J, Jung M, Kiely G, Lasslop G, Mahecha M, Margolis H, Merbold L, Montagnani L, Moors E, Olesen JE, Reichstein M, Tramontana G, van Gorsel E, Wohlfahrt G Raduly B (2015) Effect of spatial sampling from European flux-towers for estimating carbon and water fluxes with artificial neural networks. Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences external pagedoi:10.1002/2015JG002997

Wingate L, Ogée J, Cremonese E, Filippa P, Mizunuma T, Migliavacca M, Moisy C, Wilkinson M, Moureaux C, Wohlfahrt G, Hammerle A, Hörtnagl L, Gimeno C, Porcar-Castell A, Galvagno M, Nakaji T, Morison J, Kolle O, Knohl A, Kutsch W, Kolari P, Nikinmaa E, Ibrom A, Gielen B, Eugster W, Balzarolo M, Papale D, Klumpp K, Köstner B, Grünwald T, Joffre R, Ourcival J-M, Hellstrom M, Lindroth A, Georg C, Longdoz B, Genty B, Levula J, Heinesch B, Sprintsin M, Yakir D, Manise T, Guyon D, Ahrends H, Plaza-Aguilar A, Guan JH, Grace J (2015) Interpreting canopy development and physiology using a European phenology camera network at flux sites. Biogeosciences 12: 5995–6015 doi: external page10.5194/bg-12-5995-2015


D'Odorico P, Gonsamo A, Pinty B, Gobron N, Coops N, Mendez E, Schaepman ME (2014), Intercomparison of fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation products derived from satellite data over Europe. Remote Sensing of Environment 142: 141-154

Gentsch L, Hammerle A, Sturm P, Wingate L, Ogeé J, Siegwolf R, Barthel M, Plüss P, Baur T, Buchmann N, Knohl A (2014) Carbon isotope discrimination during branch photosynthesis of Fagus sylvatica: A Bayesian modeling approach. Plant, Cell & Environment 37: 1516-1535

Gentsch L, Sturm P, Hammerle A, Siegwolf R, Wingate L, Ogeé J, Baur T, Plüss P, Barthel M, Buchmann N, Knohl A (2014) Carbon isotope discrimination during branch photosynthesis of Fagus sylvatica: Field measurements using laser spectrometry. Journal of Experimental Botany 65:1481-1496, doi: external page10.1111/pce.12262


Wolf S, Eugster W, Ammann C, Haeni M, Zielis S, Hiller R, Stieger J, Imer D, Merbold L, Buchmann N (2013) Contrasting response of grassland versus forest carbon and water fluxes to spring drought in Switzerland. Environmental Research Letters 8: 035007


Niu S, Luo Y, Fei S, Yuan W, Zhang Z, Schimel D, Amiro B, Ammann C, Altaf Arain M, Arneth A, Aubinet M, Barr A, Beringer J, Bernhofer C, Black AT, Buchmann N, Cescatti A, Chen J, Kenneth P, Davis J, Dellwik E, Desai AR, Dolman H, Drake BK, Francois L, Gianelle D, Goldstein A, Gu L, Helfter C, Hirano T, Hollinger DY, Janssens I, Jones M, Kiely G, Kolb TE, Kutsch WL, Lafleur P, Law BE, Litvak M, Loustau D, Marek M, Matteucci G, Martin TA, Montagnani L, Moors E, Munger JW, Noormets A, Oechel W, Olejnik J, Papale D, Paw U KT, Pilegaard K, Rambal S, Raschi A, Richardson AD, Saleska S, Scott R, Seufert G, Spano D, Stoy P, Sutton MA, Vesala T, Wofsy S, Wohlfahrt G, Yakir D, Yang B (2012) Thermal Optimality of Net Ecosystem Exchange of Carbon Dioxide. New Phytologist 194: 775-783

Wortman E, Tomaszewski T, Waldner P, Schleppi P, Thimonier A, Eugster W, Buchmann N, Sievering H (2012) Atmospheric nitrogen deposition and canopy retention influences on photosynthetic performance at two high nitrogen deposition Swiss forests. Tellus B 64: 17216


Etzold S, Ruehr NK, Zweifel R, Dobbertin M, Zingg A, Pluess P, Häsler R, Eugster W, Buchmann N (2011) The carbon balance of two contrasting mountain forest ecosystems in Switzerland: similar annual trends, but seasonal differences. Ecosystems 14: 1289-1309, doi: external page10.1007/s10021-011-9481-3


Etzold S, Buchmann N, Eugster W (2010) Contribution of advection to the carbon budget measured by eddy covariance at a steep mountain slope forest in Switzerland. Biogeosciences 7: 2461-2475

Ruehr NK, Buchmann N (2010) Soil respiration fluxes in a temperate mixed forest: seasonality and temperature sensitivities differ among microbial and root-rhizosphere respiration. Tree Physiology 30: 165-176

Ruehr NK, Knohl A, Buchmann N (2010) Environmental variables controlling soil respiration on diurnal, seasonal and annual time-scales in a mixed mountain forest in Switzerland. Biogeochemistry 98: 153-170


Ahrends HE, Etzold S, Kutsch WL, Stoeckli R, Bruegger R, Jeanneret F, Wanner H, Buchmann N, Eugster W (2009) Phenology and carbon dioxide fluxes: use of digital photography for process-based interpretation at the ecosystem scale. Climate Research 39: 261-274

Heim A, Wehrli L, Eugster W, Schmidt MWI (2009) Effects of sampling design on the probability to detect soil carbon stock changes at the Swiss CarboEurope site Lägeren. Geoderma 149: 347-354

Ruehr NK, Knohl A, Buchmann N (2009) Environmental variables controlling soil respiration on diurnal, seasonal and annual time-scales in a mixed mountain forest in Switzerland. Biogeochemistry 98: 153-170, doi: external page10.1007/s10533-009-9383-z


Ahrends HA, Brügger R, Schenk J, Michna P, Jeanneret F, Wanner H, Eugster W (2008) Qualitative phenological observations of a mixed beech forest in northern Switzerland with digital photography. Journal Geophysical Research 113: G04004


Eugster W, Zeyer K, Zeeman MJ, Michna P, Zingg A, Buchmann N, Emmenegger L (2007) Methodical study of nitrous oxide eddy covariance measurements using quantum cascade laser spectrometery over a Swiss forest. Biogeosciences 4: 927-939

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